The objective of this study was Kilgallon A recent study conducted at the Cockrell School of Engineering at University of Texas at Austin demonstrated that air pollution can shorten human life expectancy by over a year.
Stereotactic surgery works on the basis of three main components: A stereotactic planning system, including atlasmultimodality image matching tools, coordinates calculator, etc. A stereotactic device or apparatus A stereotactic localization and placement procedure Modern stereotactic planning systems are computer based.
The stereotactic atlas is a series of cross sections of anatomical structure for example, a human braindepicted in reference to a two-coordinate frame.
Thus, each brain structure can be easily assigned a range of three coordinate numbers, which will be used for positioning the stereotactic device. In most atlases, the three dimensions are: The stereotactic apparatus uses a set of three coordinates x, y and z in an orthogonal frame of reference cartesian coordinatesor, alternatively, a cylindrical coordinates system, also with three coordinates: The mechanical device has head-holding clamps and bars which puts the head in a fixed position in reference to the coordinate system the so-called zero or origin.
In small laboratory animals, these are usually bone landmarks which are known to bear a constant spatial relation to soft tissue. For example, brain atlases often use the external auditory meatusthe inferior orbital ridges, the median point of the maxilla between the incisive teeth.
In humans, the reference points, as described above, are intracerebral structures which are clearly discernible in a radiograph or tomograph. In newborn human babies, the "soft spot" where the coronal and sagittal sutures meet known as the fontanelle becomes the bregma when this gap closes.
Currently, a number of manufacturers produce stereotactic devices fitted for neurosurgery in humans, as well as for animal experimentation. Types frame systems[ edit ] Simple Orthogonal System: The probe is directed perpendicular to a square base unit fixed to the skull. These provide three degrees of freedom by means of a carriage that moved orthogonally along the base plate or along a bar attached parallel to the base plate of the instrument.
Attached to the carriage was a second track that extended across the head frame perpendicularly. Burr Hole Mounted System: This provides a limited range of possible intracranial target points with a fixed entry point. They provided two angular degrees of freedom and a depth adjustment.
The surgeon could place the burr hole over nonessential brain tissue and utilize the instrument to direct the probe to the target point from the fixed entry point at the burr hole.
Probes are directed perpendicular to the tangent of an arc which rotates about the vertical axis and a quadrant which rotates about the horizontal axis.
The probe, directed to a depth equal to the radius of the sphere defined by the arc-quadrant, will always arrive at the center or focal point of that sphere. In this system, the phantom target is moved on the simulator to 3D coordinates. After adjusting the probe holder on the aiming bow so that the probe touches the desired target on the phantom, the transferable aiming bow is moved from the phantom base ring to the base ring on the patient.
The aim of stereotactic radiosurgery is to destroy target tissue while preserving adjacent normal tissue, where fractionated radiotherapy relies on a different sensitivity of the target and the surrounding normal tissue to the total accumulated radiation dose.
This treatment approach, entitled stereotactic body radiotherapy or SBRT, is challenged by various types of motion. However, target motion requires larger treatment margins around the target to compensate for the positioning uncertainty.
This in turn implies more normal tissue exposed to high doses, which could result in negative treatment side effects. As a consequence, stereotactic body radiotherapy is mostly delivered in a limited number of fractions, thereby blending the concept of stereotactic radiosurgery with the therapeutic benefits of fractionated radiotherapy.Apr 15, · Long-term sequelae were known as the “frontal lobe syndrome”, and included inertia, apathy, social withdrawal, and attention deficit,31 Bleeding is also another complication of this method, occasionally being fatal Postoperative complications, including mortality, reduced considerably after the introduction of stereotactic surgery Here we report the main complications that persist with the .
The modern history of psychosurgery begins in the s under the Swiss psychiatrist Gottlieb Burckhardt. The main contributing factors to how well an individual is able to adapt include their genetic makeup, physical condition, learning and reasoning, and socialization.
cognitive and perceptual components. The acknowledgement and. Psychosurgery is a general label for any surgery that is performed on the brain to alleviate mental illness. Psychosurgery generally involves destruction of specific areas of the brain.
He identified a number of problems with the newer forms of psychosurgery: the lack of any reliable theoretical position relating to psychosurgery, with different forms of surgery used in similar cases, and similar surgery used for a wide range of psychiatric conditions; the absence of controlled trials; the difficulty in assessing changes in character caused by the surgery; and the irreversible nature of .
and its (dark, kind of horrible) history. Psychosurgery So, what is it? And in the end?
Psychosurgery, (or the newer term, Neurosurgery for Mental Disorder) is the treatment of a psychiatric disorder using surgery to damage or destroy brain tissue. psychosurgery, medical and historical aspects of Psychosurgery is the surgical removal or destruction of brain tissue with the intent of normalizing behavior in otherwise disabling psychiatric disorders.