Advantages of containerisation

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Advantages of containerisation

Mixed cargo being loaded into ships at Port Adelaide circa Unloading barrels from a ship, Accra, circa A refrigerated general cargo ship. Gladstone Star was built in and scrapped in Although cargo of this sort can be delivered straight from a truck or train onto a ship, the most common way is for the cargo to be delivered to the dock in advance of the arrival of the ship and for the cargo to be stored in warehouses.

When the ship arrives the cargo is then taken from the warehouse to the quay and then lifted on board by either the ship's gear derricks or cranes or by the dockside cranes. The discharge of the ship is the reverse of the loading operation.

Loading and discharging by break bulk is labour-intensive.

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The cargo is brought to the quay next to the ship and then each individual item is lifted on board separately. Some items such as sacks or bags can be loaded in batches by using a sling or cargo net and others such as cartons can be loaded onto trays before being lifted on board.

Once on board each item must be stowed separately.

Advantages of containerisation

Before any loading takes place, any signs of the previous cargo are removed. The holds are swept, washed if necessary and any damage to them repaired. Dunnage is laid ready for the cargo or is just put in bundles ready for the stevedores to lay out as the cargo is loaded.

There are many sorts of break bulk cargo but amongst them are: Bagged cargo[ edit ] Bagged cargo e. Bags are kept away from pillars and stanchions by covering it with matting or waterproof paper. The bales must be clean with all the bands intact.

Stained or oily bales are rejected. All fibres can absorb oil and are liable to spontaneous combustion. As a result, they are kept clear of any new paintwork.

Bales close to the deckhead are covered to prevent damage by dripping sweat. To prevent movement wedges called quoins are put in on top of the "beds". Barrels should be stowed fore and aft and not athwart ships. Once the first tier has been loaded the next tier of barrels fits into the hollows between the barrels, this is known as stowing "bilge and cantline".

They are usually built in spherical shape to make it easier to roll and have less friction when changing direction. Corrugated box design and strapping Corrugated boxes are stowed on a good layer of dunnage and kept clear of any moisture.

Military and weather resistant grades of corrugated fiberboard are available. They are not overstowed with anything other than similar boxes.

They are frequently loaded on pallets to form a unit load ; if so the slings that are used to load the cargo are frequently left on to facilitate discharge. Heavy boxes are given bottom stowage.

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