Section 14 of the Act permitted the issuance of a summons to investigate a suspected fraudulent return. Section 15 established the criminal penalties for such conduct.
Implementation[ edit ] After more than ten years of the country going dry, on December 6,Senator John Blaine of Wisconsin submitted a resolution onto the Amendment paper of the Senate to submit the amendment to the states for ratification, which followed in February Amendment paper Amendment was quickly ratified, with Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Utah ratifying the amendment on December 5, State and local control[ edit ] The second section bans the importation of alcohol in violation of state or territorial law.
This has been interpreted to give states essentially absolute control over alcoholic beveragesand many U. Mississippi was the last, remaining dry until ;  Kansas continued to prohibit public bars until Court rulings[ edit ] Section 2 has been the source of every Supreme Court ruling directly addressing Twenty-first Amendment issues.
Early rulings suggested that Section 2 enabled states to legislate with exceptionally broad constitutional powers. In State Board of Equalization v. First, the Court held that Section 2 abrogated the right to import intoxicating liquors free of a direct burden on interstate commerce, which otherwise would have been unconstitutional under the Commerce Clause before passage of the Twenty-first Amendment.
Borenthe Supreme Court found that analysis under the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment had not been affected by the passage of the Twenty-first Amendment. Although the Court did not specify whether the Twenty-first Amendment could provide an exception to any other constitutional protections outside of the Commerce Clauseit acknowledged "the relevance of the Twenty-first Amendment to other constitutional provisions becomes increasingly doubtful".
However, the Craig v. Boren Court did distinguish two characteristics of state laws permitted by the Amendment, which otherwise might have run afoul of the Constitution.
The constitutional issues in each centered or touched upon: Dolethe Supreme Court upheld the withholding of some federal highway funds  to South Dakotabecause beer with an alcohol content below a specified percentage could be lawfully sold to adults under the age of 21 within the state.
Borenprovided a brief but notable dissent based solely on Section 2. Rhode Islandthe Court held states cannot use the Twenty-first Amendment to abridge freedom of speech protections under the First Amendment. Heald held that the Twenty-first Amendment does not overrule the Dormant Commerce Clause with respect to alcohol sales, and therefore states must treat in-state and out-of-state wineries equally.
The Court criticized its earliest rulings on the issue, including State Board of Equalization v. The aim of the Twenty-first Amendment was to allow States to maintain an effective and uniform system for controlling liquor by regulating its transportation, importation, and use.
The Amendment did not give States the authority to pass nonuniform laws in order to discriminate against out-of-state goods, a privilege they had not enjoyed at any earlier time.First Amendment Paper The First Amendment is part of the Bill of Rights.
The Bill of Rights is our rights as citizens living in the United States of America. In this paper I will look at three provisions to the First Amendment, highlighting one case for each provision.
Included are one case to discuss freedom of speech, one case to discuss. The meaning of the phrase "well-regulated" in the 2nd amendment From: Brian T.
Halonen The following are taken from the Oxford English Dictionary, and bracket in time the writing of the 2nd amendment. "If a liberal Education has formed in us well-regulated Appetites and worthy Inclinations.".
"The practice of all well-regulated courts of justice in the . The Second Amendment (Amendment II) to the United States Constitution protects the right of the people to keep and bear arms and was adopted on December 15, as part of the Bill of Rights.
The Supreme Court ruled in the Heller decision that the right belongs to individuals in their homes for self-defense. while also ruling that the right is not unlimited and does not preclude the. First Amendment Paper The First Amendment is part of the Bill of Rights.
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Tenth Amendment Research Papers Tenth Amendment research papers look at the 10th Amendment of the United States Constitution. The Tenth Amendment to the United States Constitution was to prove extremely important to the subsequent history of the states’ rights controversy.
Research papers have called attention to the fact that where the Articles of Confederation had stated that all powers.