Today We Walked-The Oklahoma Edition - April 2, Those of us who are fortunate enough to watch our fourteen- fifteen- and sixteen-year-olds develop into young men and women sit with bated breath as they begin making choices in life that will stick with them for some time. These kids are finally capable of taking in information, assimilating and synthesizing it, and taking it even one step further to applying the information to potential situations or assignments. They enjoy exploring where they fit in, looking at where they are going in their future and trying new things. Both girls and boys are able to solve their own problems a bit easier, and both have developed specific likes and dislikes as far as school subjects.
Nature versus nurture Although developmental change runs parallel with chronological age,  age itself cannot cause development.
Environmental factors affecting development may include both diet and disease exposure, as well as social, emotional, and cognitive experiences. Plasticity of this type can occur throughout the lifespan and may involve many kinds of behavior, including some emotional reactions.
Genetic-environmental correlations are circumstances in which genetic factors make certain experiences more likely to occur. In all of these cases, it becomes difficult to know whether child characteristics were shaped by genetic factors, by experiences, or by a combination of the two.
What relevant aspects of the individual change over a period of time? What are the rate and speed of development?
What are the mechanisms of development — what aspects of experience and heredity cause developmental change? Are there typical individual differences in the relevant developmental changes?
Are there population differences in this aspect of development for example, differences in the development of boys and of girls? Empirical research that attempts to answer these questions may follow a number of patterns.
Initially, observational research in naturalistic conditions may be needed to develop a narrative describing and defining an aspect of developmental change, such as changes in reflex reactions in the first year.
Such studies examine the characteristics of children at different ages. Some child development studies examine the effects of experience or heredity by comparing characteristics of different groups of children in a necessarily non-randomized design.
Child development stages Milestones are changes in specific physical and mental abilities such as walking and understanding language that mark the end of one developmental period and the beginning of another.
Studies of the accomplishment Communication and language development 12 16 year olds many developmental tasks have established typical chronological ages associated with developmental milestones.
However, there is considerable variation in the achievement of milestones, even between children with developmental trajectories within the typical range. Some milestones are more variable than others; for example, receptive speech indicators do not show much variation among children with typical hearing, but expressive speech milestones can be quite variable.
Prevention of and early intervention in developmental delay are significant topics in the study of child development. Increased knowledge of age-specific milestones allows parents and others to keep track of appropriate development.
Here are descriptions of the development of a number of physical and mental characteristics. Speed and pattern[ edit ] The speed of physical growth is rapid in the months after birth, then slows, so birth weight is doubled in the first four months, tripled by age 12 months, but not quadrupled until 24 months.
At birth, head size is already relatively near to that of an adult, but the lower parts of the body are much smaller than adult size. In the course of development, then, the head grows relatively little, and torso and limbs undergo a great deal of growth.
However, genetic factors can produce the maximum growth only if environmental conditions are adequate. Some of these differences are due to family genetic factors, others to environmental factors, but at some points in development they may be strongly influenced by individual differences in reproductive maturation.
Motor[ edit ] A child learning to walk Abilities for physical movement change through childhood from the largely reflexive unlearned, involuntary movement patterns of the young infant to the highly skilled voluntary movements characteristic of later childhood and adolescence.
Definition[ edit ] "Motor learning refers to the increasing spatial and temporal accuracy of movements with practice". Speed and pattern[ edit ] The speed of motor development is rapid in early life, as many of the reflexes of the newborn alter or disappear within the first year, and slows later.
Like physical growth, motor development shows predictable patterns of cephalocaudal head to foot and proximodistal torso to extremities development, with movements at the head and in the more central areas coming under control before those of the lower part of the body or the hands and feet. The dorsolateral frontal cortex is responsible for strategic processing.
The parietal cortex is important in controlling perceptual-motor integration and the basal ganglia and supplementary motor cortex are responsible for motor sequences.
Intra-limb correlations, like the strong relationship and distance between hip and knee joints, were studied and proved to affect the way an infant will walk.
There are also bigger genetic factors like the tendency to use the left or right side of the body more, predicting the dominant hand early. Sample t-tests proved that there was a significant difference between both sides at 18 weeks for girls and the right side was considered to be more dominant Piek et al.
Some factors, like the fact that boys tend to have larger and longer arms are biological constraints that we cannot control, yet have an influence for example, on when an infant will reach sufficiently.
Overall, there are sociological factors and genetic factors that influence motor development. This is significant in motor development because the hind portion of the frontal lobe is known to control motor functions. This form of development is known as "Portional Development" and explains why motor functions develop relatively quickly during typical childhood development, while logic, which is controlled by the middle and front portions of the frontal lobe, usually will not develop until late childhood and early adolescence.
Skilled voluntary movements such as passing objects from hand to hand develop as a result of practice and learning. Infants with smaller, slimmer, and more maturely proportionated infants tended to belly crawl and crawl earlier than the infants with larger builds.
Infants with more motor experience have been shown to belly crawl and crawl sooner. Not all infants go through the stages of belly crawling. However, those who skip the stage of belly crawling are not as proficient in their ability to crawl on their hands and knees.
Atypical motor development such as persistent primitive reflexis beyond 4—6 months or delayed walking may be an indication of developmental delays or conditions such as autismcerebral palsyor down syndrome.Years; Years. This is a guide to how children develop speech and language between 11 and 17 years.
Language development at this stage is a gradual process. Changes still take place but they are harder to see. Check the Progress of your child’s communication development using our Progress Checker for children at the following ages.
Many parents worry about their child’s development at one point in time. With each of my boys, I had worries about their communication and thought their language delays or behaviors signaled something serious.
That might just be the “worrier” in me, but it might just be the “mom” in me. Your toddler will still rely mostly on nonverbal communication, but you can help him develop his talking, reading, and sensory skills.
Middle adolescence is a time of blossoming development — the insecure, inwardly focused year-old becomes a cheerful, charming year-old looking toward the future. During this time your child’s thinking skills take a decidedly adult turn, his body matures, and friends and social networks.
Virginia’s Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds Prepared by Office of Humanities and Early Childhood Virginia Department of Education.
This study found that young 4-, 5- and 6-year-olds who engaged in more conversation at home had more brain activity and verbal aptitude while they were listening to a story and processing language.