Earthworm biodiversity in an arid region

Reviews in Agricultural Science, 3: However, the importance of below-ground biodiversity, and earthworm biodiversity in particular, has not received much attention. Earthworms represent the most important group of soil macrofauna.

Earthworm biodiversity in an arid region

How to Write a Summary of an Article? Unfortunately, the amount of biodiversity in forests is severely at risk due to the increasing deforestation over the past four decades.

Earthworms could be a threat to biodiversity

It is estimated in the biological community that approximately 50, species are completely wiped out annually as a result of arbitration, land clearance, logging, and other human techniques.

Of the ten, the Indo-Burma forests were deemed the number one most endangered forest. Encompassing approximately 2, km, the forests spreads from eastern India to Southern china.

The Indo-Burma forests are positioned in the midst of floodplains, lakes, and rivers. These various waterways give off life and prosperity, allowing richness in biodiversity as well as resources. This region is home oh number of the largest freshwater fish, bird, and turtle species. There is also, an assortment of ecosystems embodied in this hotshot, comprising of dry evergreen, wet evergreen, and deciduous forests.

There are also several patches of woodlands and scrubbings on karts limestone ridges, some in costal lands as well as dispersed heath forests. Additionally, a broad range of distinct, restricted vegetation developments, including seasonally flooded grasslands, lowland floodplain swamps, and mangroves.

This vast biological diversity is a result of topographical interaction, soil hegemonies, climate change, and seasonal rainfall patterns. The plant species are abundantly diverse with 13, vascular plants estimated with about half of them being endemic.

The flora of forests range from a variety of ginger and orchids over 1, different orchid species found in Thailand alone to tropical hardwood trees including Disintegrations teak and Dipterous which happens to be commercially valuable.

The animal species are even more widespread as Indo-Burma is continually unmasking biological treasures. In the last twelve years, [the following] six age mammals have been discovered: There are approximately mammal species residing in the region; over seventy species and seven types are endemic.

Over amphibian species are found in the hotshot, but there is not high level of endemics outside of the genus level. There are more than 1, bird species with over 60 being endemic. The floodplain wetlands and the rivers are absolutely essential for bird species conservation since population numbers have declined due to human expansion and hunting.

The reptile population is one of the more prevalent species of the region. Almost species of reptile reside there which more than species being endemic and twelve genera. A popular species is the Chitchatted, a striped narrow-headed turtle with a soft-shell, which can grow up to about centimeters.

These species are decreases in number as well, mostly due to the overexploitation on behalf of wildlife trade. Of the 22 non- marine turtle species that are endangered, almost half of them are found in the Indo- Burma region. Other prominent reptiles include the Ellipsis butterfly lizard, the Chinese crocodile lizard, and the Siamese crocodile.

Humans have greatly impacted life for the animals, however, and the overall environment. Indo-Burma was actually one of the primary lands used by humans in the development of agriculture; Hereford, fire has been used more and more over the years to clear out land needed to fit agricultural needs and other human demands.

As demand for agricultural goods has skyrocketed over the past years due to population and market expansion, forest destruction became widespread. Huge areas of lowland forests soon became replaced with tree plantations oil palm, teak, and rubberwhile hill forests and Montana were threatened by sugarcane, coffee, tea, and vegetable crop plantations.

In addition to plantations, forests become endangered by mining for ores and gems, firewood collection, charcoal production, and logging.

The marine ecosystem simultaneously became under great pressure in many areas due to development. Draining for the cultivation of wet rice has damaged freshwater wetlands and floodplain swamps mainly in Vietnam, Thailand, and Manner.

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The damming of rivers have also become way more prevalent in efforts to generate electricity and maximize water storage to support the economic growth of the country as well as for exportation of goods and services to bordering countries to increase foreign exchange income; regrettably, damming a river not only converts that small body of eater into a large pond, but it decreases the oxygen content and overall temperature, as well as in amplifies water turbidity down the river and river-bed erosion.

The operational measures of the reservoir has resulted in sporadic or frequent flooding of sandbanks, stretches of channel assortment, sandbars, and other territory that is generally uncovered during dry season [severely impacting turtle species and nesting birds].

Mangroves in the region have been transformed to aquaculture ponds, while mudflats have been comprehensively afforested with mangrove or shed by piles of nets, which greatly effects their significance as a feeding habitat for migrating birds and other specimen.

Furthermore, ecosystems of sand dunes are in severe danger due to forestation, and overfeeding along with excessive use of [destructive] fishing methods have produced a considerable problem with both the offshore and coastal aquatic ecosystems. In the Indo-Burma hotshot, protected area structures have become the foundation of government conservation program.

There is officiallykm of land protected, representing nearly ten percent of the original amount of vegetation in the region. Conversely, onlykm almost six percent is in the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources CNN protected area categories one to four.

A fine approach to ensuring that the system of protected areas effectively preserves representative biodiversity is by securing the species that face the greatest danger of extinction globally.

More efforts towards the conservation of the Indo-Burma forests are currently in the making and there are many organizations and individuals that are eager to contribute.The biodiversity of earthworms is influenced by physical, chemical and biological properties of soil and climatic conditions of habitats.

Earthworm’s biodiversity is directly affected by soil characteristics (Edwards and Lofty, ). With their modest rainfall, arid regions are characterized by relatively fewer species than the better-watered biomes. But this makes it all the more important that the biodiversity that is present in arid environments be given even higher priority; for each species lost from an arid region, the percentage of loss for the region's biodiversity is much higher than in more species-rich regions.

Efforts have been made in this study to estimate the current status of earthworm biodiversity in western arid and semiarid lands of India. A total of different locations (rural, urban, and sub. Efforts have been made in this study to estimate the current status of earthworm biodiversity in western arid and semiarid lands of India.

A total of different locations (rural, urban, and sub. Abstract. Efforts have been made in this study to estimate the current status of earthworm biodiversity in western arid and semiarid lands of India. are available on earthworm dispersal patterns in arid and semiarid lands of African region.

El-Duweini and Ghabbour () reported the earthworm community composition from a few locations of Egypt.

Earthworm biodiversity in an arid region

Ghabbour and Shakir () estimated the earthworm dispersal and richness patterns in Meriut coastal desert region in Egypt.

A REVIEW ON MOLECULAR MARKERS AS TOOLS TO STUDY EARTHWORM DIVERSITY