Explaining Your Kidney Test Results: A GFR of 60 or higher is in the normal range. A GFR below 60 may mean kidney disease. A GFR of 15 or lower may mean kidney failure.
You can make sense of all those numbers in the 24 hour kidney stone reports. You can use those numbers to understand how things stand with you.
This article deals with calcium stones. A second one will cover uric acid stones. Units of 24 hour Urine Measurements Time Because excretions of stone risk factors are in amount per 24 hours, we need the time of the collection.
You provide the beginning and end times for the collection, in minutes and hours, and the laboratory corrects all excretion values to amounts in 24 hours. The measured total time is 22 hours.
If the volume is 1. So you want to collect as close to 24 hours as possible.
If your time is below 22 or above 26 hours throw it away — no cost — and do another. I am sure this is an unnecessary comment but sometimes people forget that a urine collection begins by emptying the bladder, writing down the time, and discarding the urine.
Here and there people add it, making the real collection from whenever the bladder had last been emptied. The laboratory measures the total volume of urine if you send or bring it. You provide the collection times, assure all the urine has been collected, and even may measure the volume, so quality is under your control.
Excretion Rates Urine creatinine, calcium, oxalate, phosphate, and citrate excretions, are in milligrams mg or grams gm per 24 hours. An ounce contains Atoms, like sodium, each have a weight made up mainly of their constituent protons and neutrons.
One mmol of sodium is 23 mg.
Some atoms like calcium have two charged sites which can bind to other molecules or atoms. They are often measured in milliequivalents mEq which is the weight times the number of sites. Sodium has only one, so mmol and mEq are the same. Molecules like creatinine and oxalate have weights made up of their constituent atoms.
Conversion of Units Some laboratories report in mmol or mEq. You can convert your lab report if it differs from mine. I will be using L for urine volume, mg for urine creatinine, calcium, oxalate, and citrate, and mmol for urine sodium.
Here are the conversions: It is a logarithm to the base 10 so a change from 6 to 5 means a 10 fold increase in acidity, from 6 to 7 a ten fold increase in alkalinity. Supersaturations are calculated from urine concentrations. The one we use here is the ratio of the concentration dissolved in urine of each of the three important stone forming salts, calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, and uric acid divided by their individual solubilities at body temperature.
Values below 1 mean crystals will dissolve. Values at one mean crystals will neither grow nor shrink nor form. Values above 1 mean crystals can form and grow. Being a ratio it has no units. Is The 24 Hour Urine Valid? Urine creatinine Like all 24 hour excretion rates, that for creatinine is calculated from the concentration, measured volume, and collection time.
Because muscle cells make almost all the creatinine lost in urine any two urines you collect will have about the same amount of creatinine in them. When a urine stands out as different from prior collections, I say it is best to repeat it.Kidney Physiology Lab Report Supplement Please follow the same guidelines on writing a lab report found online.
However, for this report the. Hemodialysis is a treatment used when your kidneys fail (Stage 5 Kidney Disease) and can no longer clean your blood and remove extra fluid from your body. A hemodialysis access or vascular access is a way to reach your blood for hemodialysis.
If you receive hemodialysis, your access is one of the. 3) Your group should answer the questions at the end of this lab guide in an e- mail to the class Inbox.
Use “Kidney Dissection” as the subject line of the e-. The normal serum creatinine reference interval does not necessarily reflect a normal GFR for a patient. Because mild and moderate kidney injury is poorly inferred from serum creatinine alone, NKDEP strongly encourages clinical laboratories to routinely estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and report the value when serum creatinine is measured for patients 18 and older, when appropriate.
Lab Report A.
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Introduction The purpose of the kidney dissection was to get hands on experience of what the kidney appears to be and the internal views of the kidney. A medical, science, and information company dedicated to enhancing the lives of 26 million individuals with kidney disease.
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