Introduction The goal of Indian education from the s through the s was to assimilate Indian people into the melting pot of America by placing them in institutions where traditional ways could be replaced by those sanctioned by the government. Federal Indian policy called for the removal of children from their families and in many cases enrollment in a government run boarding school. In this way, the policy makers believed, young people would be immersed in the values and practical knowledge of the dominant American society while also being kept away from any influences imparted by their traditionally-minded relatives. Indian Boarding School Movement The Indian boarding school movement began in the post Civil War era when idealistic reformers turned their attention to the plight of Indian people.
Europeans and Native Americans in North America, —[ edit ] Eastern North America; the "Proclamation line" is the border between the red and the pink areas.
Epidemiological and archeological work has established the effects of increased immigration of children accompanying families to North America from — They came from areas where smallpox was endemic in the Netherlands, England and France, and passed on the disease to indigenous people.
At the same time, indigenous peoples competed for dominance in the European fur trade and hunting areas. The French, English and Spanish powers sought to engage Native American tribes as The forced assimilation of native americans essay forces in their North American armies, otherwise composed mostly of colonial militia in the early battles.
In many cases indigenous warriors formed the great majority of fighting forces, which deepened some of their rivalries. To secure the help of the tribes, the Europeans offered goods and signed treaties. The treaties usually promised that the European power would honor the tribe's traditional lands and independence.
In addition, the indigenous peoples formed alliances for their own reasons, wanting to keep allies in the fur and gun trades, positioning European allies against their traditional enemies among other tribes, etc.
As the dominant power after the Seven Years' War, Great Britain instituted the Royal Proclamation ofto try to protect indigenous peoples' territory from colonial encroachment of peoples from east of the Appalachian Mountains. The document defined a boundary to separate Native American country from that of the European community.
In part, this justified the English taking complete control of lands on the European side, but the proclamation did not effectively prevent individual ethnic European colonists from continuing to migrate westward.
The British did not have sufficient forces to patrol the border and keep out colonists. For further information see European colonization of the Americas.
From the Native American perspective, European control of an area generally means a dramatic change in their way of life, with free movement across hunting grounds curtailed or objected to, for instance, by Europeans who had different conceptions of property and the uses of land.
The United States and Native Americans, —[ edit ] Indian Agent Benjamin Hawkins demonstrating European methods of farming to Creek Muscogee on his Georgian plantation situated along the Flint RiverThe struggle for empire in North America caused the United States in its earliest years to adopt an Indian policy similar to the one devised by Great Britain in colonial times.
As relations with England and Spain normalized during the early 19th century, the need for such friendly relations ended. It was no longer necessary to "woo" the tribes to prevent the other powers from using them against the United States.
Now, instead of a buffer against other "civilized" foes, the tribes often became viewed as an obstacle in the expansion of the United States.
George Washington formulated a policy to encourage the "civilizing" process. But it has been conceived to be impracticable to civilize the Indians of North America — This opinion is probably more convenient than just. While it did not authorize the forced removal of the indigenous tribes, it authorized the President to negotiate land exchange treaties with tribes located in lands of the United States.
The Intercourse Law of prohibited United States citizens from entering tribal lands granted by such treaties without permission, though it was often ignored. The agreement represented one of the largest transfers of land that was signed between the U.
Government and Native Americans without being instigated by warfare. By the treaty, the Choctaws signed away their remaining traditional homelands, opening them up for American settlement in Mississippi Territory.
While the Indian Removal Act made the relocation of the tribes voluntary, it was often abused by government officials. The best-known example is the Treaty of New Echota. It was negotiated and signed by a small fraction of Cherokee tribal members, not the tribal leadership, on December 29, While tribal leaders objected to Washington, DC and the treaty was revised inthe state of Georgia proceeded to act against the Cherokee tribe.
The tribe was forced to relocate in In the decades that followed, white settlers encroached even into the western lands set aside for Native Americans. American settlers eventually made homesteads from coast to coast, just as the Native Americans had before them.
No tribe was untouched by the influence of white traders, farmers, and soldiers. It became responsible for negotiating treaties and enforcing conditions, at least for Native Americans. In the bureau was transferred to the Department of the Interior as so many of its responsibilities were related to the holding and disposition of large land assets.
In Commissioner George W. Manypenny called for a new code of regulations. He noted that there was no place in the West where the Indians could be placed with a reasonable hope that they might escape conflict with white settlers. He also called for the Intercourse Law of to be revised, as its provisions had been aimed at individual intruders on Indian territory rather than at organized expeditions.
In the succeeding Commissioner, Charles Mixnoted that the repeated removal of tribes had prevented them from acquiring a taste for European way of life.
In Secretary of the Interior Caleb B. Smith questioned the wisdom of treating tribes as quasi-independent nations.Comparing the Assimilation into American Culture of the Irish and the Native American - Comparing the Assimilation into American Culture of the Irish and the Native American Many people would agree that the Irish have been successful in assimilating into American culture .
Free Essay: The Effects of Colonization on the Native Americans Native Americans had inherited the land now called America and eventually their lives were. The Forced Assimilation of Native Americans One of the more horrible and lesser known aspects of the Europeans colonization of the United States is the destruction of .
Comparing the Assimilation into American Culture of the Irish and the Native American - Comparing the Assimilation into American Culture of the Irish and the Native American Many people would agree that the Irish have been successful in assimilating into American culture and the Native American has been unsuccessful.
An award-winning site on Pacific Northwest Native Americans from the University of Washington Libraries, featuring essays for K, Home» American Indians of the Pacific Northwest Collection» Topical Essays» Assimilation Through additional off reservation boarding schools were established in other parts of the country, including.
The Forced Assimilation of Native AmericansOne of the more horrible and lesser known aspects of the Europeans colonization of the United States is the destruction of numerous Native American societies and cultures/5(20).