Structuralism and Semiotics Structuralism Structuralism is a way of thinking about the world which is predominantly concerned with the perceptions and description of structures. At its simplest, structuralism claims that the nature of every element in any given situation has no significance by itself, and in fact is determined by all the other elements involved in that situation. The full significance of any entity cannot be perceived unless and until it is integrated into the structure of which it forms a part Hawkes, p.
Perhaps the most influential integrative theory of personality is that of psychoanalysis, which was largely promulgated during the first four decades of the 20th century by the Austrian neurologist Sigmund Freud.
Although Freud had two older half-brothers, his strongest if also most ambivalent attachment seems to have been to a nephew, John, one year his senior, who provided the model of intimate friend and hated rival that Freud reproduced often at later stages of his life.
In the Freud family was compelled for economic reasons to move to Leipzig and then a year after to Viennawhere Freud remained until the Nazi annexation of Austria 78 years later.
So too his interest in the theme of the seduction of daughters was rooted in complicated ways in the context of Viennese attitudes toward female sexuality.
In Freud was graduated from the Sperl Gymnasium and, apparently inspired by a public reading of an essay by Goethe on nature, turned to medicine as a career.
In he entered the General Hospital in Vienna as a clinical assistant to train with the psychiatrist Theodor Meynert and the professor of internal medicine Hermann Nothnagel. At this time he also developed an interest in the pharmaceutical benefits of cocainewhich he pursued for several years.
Although Freud was soon to abandon his faith in hypnosishe returned to Vienna in February with the seed of his revolutionary psychological method implanted. Several months after his return Freud married Martha Bernays, the daughter of a prominent Jewish family whose ancestors included a chief rabbi of Hamburg and Heinrich Heine.
She was to bear six children, one of whom, Anna Freudwas to become a distinguished psychoanalyst in her own right. Shortly after his marriage Freud began his closest friendship, with the Berlin physician Wilhelm Fliess, whose role in the development of psychoanalysis has occasioned widespread debate.
Throughout the 15 years of their intimacy Fliess provided Freud an invaluable interlocutor for his most daring ideas. A somewhat less controversial influence arose from the partnership Freud began with the physician Josef Breuer after his return from Paris.
Freud turned to a clinical practice in neuropsychologyand the office he established at Berggasse 19 was to remain his consulting room for almost half a century. Rather than using hypnotic suggestion, as had Charcot, Breuer allowed her to lapse into a state resembling autohypnosis, in which she would talk about the initial manifestations of her symptoms.
By encouraging the patient to express any random thoughts that came associatively to mind, the technique aimed at uncovering hitherto unarticulated material from the realm of the psyche that Freud, following a long tradition, called the unconscious. Because of its incompatibility with conscious thoughts or conflicts with other unconscious ones, this material was normally hidden, forgotten, or unavailable to conscious reflection.
Such blockages Freud dubbed resistance, which had to be broken down in order to reveal hidden conflicts. Unlike Charcot and Breuer, Freud came to the conclusion, based on his clinical experience with female hysterics, that the most insistent source of resisted material was sexual in nature.
And even more momentously, he linked the etiology of neurotic symptoms to the same struggle between a sexual feeling or urge and the psychic defenses against it. Being able to bring that conflict to consciousness through free association and then probing its implications was thus a crucial step, he reasoned, on the road to relieving the symptom, which was best understood as an unwitting compromise formation between the wish and the defense.
Screen memories At first, however, Freud was uncertain about the precise status of the sexual component in this dynamic conception of the psyche. His patients seemed to recall actual experiences of early seductions, often incestuous in nature. But then, as he disclosed in a now famous letter to Fliess of September 2,he concluded that, rather than being memories of actual events, these shocking recollections were the residues of infantile impulses and desires to be seduced by an adult.
What was recalled was not a genuine memory but what he would later call a screen memory, or fantasyhiding a primitive wish. That is, rather than stressing the corrupting initiative of adults in the etiology of neuroses, Freud concluded that the fantasies and yearnings of the child were at the root of later conflict.
The absolute centrality of his change of heart in the subsequent development of psychoanalysis cannot be doubted. For in attributing sexuality to children, emphasizing the causal power of fantasies, and establishing the importance of repressed desiresFreud laid the groundwork for what many have called the epic journey into his own psyche, which followed soon after the dissolution of his partnership with Breuer.New Criticism.
A literary movement that started in the late s and s and originated in reaction to traditional criticism that new critics saw as largely concerned with matters extraneous to the text, e.g., with the biography or psychology of the author or the work's relationship to literary history.
Psychodynamic Theory Part 1: Psychodynamic theory is a view that explains personality in the terms of unconscious and conscious forces, such as beliefs and unconscious desires. Sigmund Freud in the early 20th century proposed a psychodynamic theory according to which personality consists of the ID.
The ID is responsible for instincts . There’s definately a lot to learn about this topic. I love all of the points you made. Sigmund Freud developed Psychodynamic theory which gave a detailed description of the levels of awareness (conscious, preconscious and unconscious) and explained how the thoughts and feelings of an individual can affect his or her actions.
The last component in Freud’s trichotomy, the superego, develops from the internalization of society’s moral commands through identification with parental dictates during the resolution of the Oedipus complex.
Only partly conscious, the superego gains some of its punishing force by borrowing certain aggressive elements in the id, which are turned inward against the ego .
On the uses of a liberal education: 1. as lite entertainment for bored college students. September 1, Harper's Magazine. Mark Edmundson. A college student getting a liberal arts education ponders filling out a questionnaire that includes an opportunity for him to evaluate his instructor.