Prehistory of the Philippines Docking station and entrance to the Tabon Cave Complex Site in Palawanwhere one of the oldest human remains was located. Discovery in of stone tools and fossils of butchered animal remains in Rizal, Kalinga has pushed back evidence of early hominins in the country to as early asyears. Landa Jocano theorizes that the ancestors of the Filipinos evolved locally. These artifacts are said to be evidence of long range communication between prehistoric Southeast Asian societies.
The Enlightenment was cosmopolitan in its effort to spread the light of reason, but from the very beginning of the age there were nationalistic tendencies to be seen in varying shades. Although Rousseau himself was generally concerned with universal man in such works as… Identification of state and people Nationalism, translated into world politics, implies the identification of the state or nation with the people—or at least the desirability of determining the extent of the state according to ethnographic principles.
In the age of nationalism, but only in the age of nationalism, the principle was generally recognized that each nationality should form a state—its state—and that the state should include all members of that nationality.
Formerly states, or territories under one administration, were not delineated by nationality. Men did not give their loyalty to the nation-state but to other, different forms of political organization: The nation-state was nonexistent during the greater part of history, and for a very long time it was not even regarded as an ideal.
In the first 15 centuries of the Christian Era, the ideal was the universal world-state, not loyalty to any separate political entity.
As political allegiancebefore the age of nationalism, was not determined by nationality, so civilization was not thought of as nationally determined.
Later, in the periods of the Renaissance and of Classicism, it was the ancient Greek and Roman civilizations that became a universal norm, valid for all peoples and all times.
Still later, French civilization was accepted throughout Europe as the valid civilization for educated people of all nationalities.
It was only at the end of the 18th century that, for the first time, civilization was considered to be determined by nationality. It was then that the principle was put forward that a man could be educated only in his own mother tongue, not in languages of other civilizations and other times, whether they were classical languages or the literary creations of other peoples who had reached a high degree of civilization.
Cultural nationalism From the end of the 18th century on, the nationalization of education and public life went hand in hand with the nationalization of states and political loyalties.
Poets and scholars began to emphasize cultural nationalism first. They reformed the mother tongue, elevated it to the rank of a literary language, and delved deep into the national past.
Thus they prepared the foundations for the political claims for national statehood soon to be raised by the people in whom they had kindled the spirit. Before the 18th century there had been evidences of national feeling among certain groups at certain periods, especially in times of stress and conflict.
The rise of national feeling to major political importance was encouraged by a number of complex developments: This large, unified territorial state, with its political and economic centralization, became imbued in the 18th century with a new spirit—an emotional fervour similar to that of religious movements in earlier periods.
Under the influence of the new theories of the sovereignty of the people and the rights of man, the people replaced the king as the centre of the nation. State became identified with nation, as civilization became identified with national civilization.
That development ran counter to the conceptions that had dominated political thought for the preceding 2, years. Hitherto man had commonly stressed the general and the universal and had regarded unity as the desirable goal.
Nationalism stressed the particular and parochialthe differences, and the national individualities. Those tendencies became more pronounced as nationalism developed. Its less attractive characteristics were not at first apparent. In the 17th and 18th centuries the common standards of Western civilization, the regard for the universally human, the faith in reason one and the same everywhere as well as in common sense, the survival of Christian and Stoic traditions—all of these were still too strong to allow nationalism to develop fully and to disrupt society.
Thus nationalism in its beginning was thought to be compatible with cosmopolitan convictions and with a general love of mankind, especially in western Europe and North America.Massive external (manufacturing) investment was first attracted based on education and cheap skilled labour, while equally massive internal investment has more recently been mobilized in modern infrastructure and urban (including consumer) facilities especially in major cities.
The Rise and Decline of Military Authoritarianism in Latin America: The Role of Stabilization Policy Gordon Richards MILITARY AUTHORITARIANISM IN LATIN AMERICA external disequilibria in the Latin American countries, leading to the.
Ho Chi Minh, the enemy of the United States in the Vietnam War, was initially a friend. He worked with U.S.
special forces in rescuing downed American airmen and providing intelligence on Japanese movements during the last year of World War II. The Great Depression and the Authoritarian Response OUTLINE Both the demand for Latin American exports and foreign investment in Latin American Authoritarianism appeared earlier in Japan than in the West.
Nationalist groups emerged supporting Confucian and Shinto values, as well as increased militarization. This book takes on the challenge of conceptually thinking Paraguayan cultural history within the broader field of Latin American studies.
It presents original contributions to the study of Paraguayan culture from a variety of perspectives that include visual, literary, and cultural studies; gender. Authoritarian Regimes in Latin America: Dictators, Despots, and Tyrants (Jaguar Books on Latin America) [Paul H.
Lewis] on grupobittia.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Strong, colorful personalities who impose their will upon laws, constitutions, courts, and congresses are an enduring feature of Latin American politics5/5(1).
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|History of the Philippines - Wikipedia||Additional Information In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content: In contrast to the prior "caudillistic" dictatorships and the unstable succession of military intervention in politically unstable countries, the new military dictatorships were less personalistic, more effectively institutionalized, and emerged not in the most backward countries but rather in those at a relatively higher level of development.|