Introduction The main topic of the article is the Western metaphilosophy of the last hundred years or so. But that topic is broached via a sketch of some earlier Western metaphilosophies. Once that sketch is in hand, the article defines the notion of metaphilosophy and distinguishes between explicit and implicit metaphilosophy. Then there is a consideration of how metaphilosophies might be categorized and an outline of the course of the remainder of the article.
Green and Hossein Nasr have argued that starting in the 10th century, some medieval Islamic madrasas became universities. Medieval university and List of medieval universities The university is generally regarded as a formal institution that has its origin in the Medieval Catholic tradition.
It is possible, however, that the development of cathedral schools into universities was quite rare, with the University of Paris being an exception. In the early medieval periodmost new universities were founded from pre-existing schools, usually when these schools were deemed to have become primarily sites of higher education.
Many historians state that universities and cathedral schools were a continuation of the interest in learning promoted by monasteries. The University of Bologna began as a law school teaching the ius gentium or Roman law of peoples which was in demand across Europe for those defending the right of incipient nations against empire and church.
Bologna's special claim to Alma Mater Studiorum [ clarification needed ] is based on its autonomy, its awarding of degrees, and other structural arrangements, making it the oldest continuously operating institution  independent of kings, emperors or any kind of direct religious authority.
From a medieval manuscript. The conventional date ofor according to some,  records when Irnerius commences teaching Emperor Justinian's 6th century codification of Roman law, the Corpus Iuris Civilisrecently discovered at Pisa.
Lay students arrived in the city from many lands entering into a contract to gain this knowledge, organising themselves into 'Nationes', divided between that of the Cismontanes and that of the Ultramontanes.
The students "had all the power … and dominated the masters". All over Europe rulers and city governments began to create universities to satisfy a European thirst for knowledge, and the belief that society would benefit from the scholarly expertise generated from these institutions.
Princes and leaders of city governments perceived the potential benefits of having a scholarly expertise develop with the ability to address difficult problems and achieve desired ends.
The emergence of humanism was essential to this understanding of the possible utility of universities as well as the revival of interest in knowledge gained from ancient Greek texts.
Some scholars believe that these works represented one of the most important document discoveries in Western intellectual history. The efforts of this " scholasticism " were focused on applying Aristotelian logic and thoughts about natural processes to biblical passages and attempting to prove the viability of those passages through reason.
This became the primary mission of lecturers, and the expectation of students. Heidelberg University is the oldest university in Germany and among Europe's best ranked. The university culture developed differently in northern Europe than it did in the south, although the northern primarily Germany, France and Great Britain and southern universities primarily Italy did have many elements in common.
Latin was the language of the university, used for all texts, lectures, disputations and examinations. Professors lectured on the books of Aristotle for logic, natural philosophyand metaphysics ; while HippocratesGalenand Avicenna were used for medicine.
Outside of these commonalities, great differences separated north and south, primarily in subject matter. Italian universities focused on law and medicine, while the northern universities focused on the arts and theology.
There were distinct differences in the quality of instruction in these areas which were congruent with their focus, so scholars would travel north or south based on their interests and means.
There was also a difference in the types of degrees awarded at these universities. English, French and German universities usually awarded bachelor's degrees, with the exception of degrees in theology, for which the doctorate was more common. Italian universities awarded primarily doctorates.
The distinction can be attributed to the intent of the degree holder after graduation — in the north the focus tended to be on acquiring teaching positions, while in the south students often went on to professional positions. Southern universities tended to be patterned after the student-controlled model begun at the University of Bologna.
List of early modern universities in Europe and List of colonial universities in Latin America During the Early Modern period approximately late 15th century tothe universities of Europe would see a tremendous amount of growth, productivity and innovative research.
At the end of the Middle Ages, about years after the first European university was founded, there were twenty-nine universities spread throughout Europe. In the 15th century, twenty-eight new ones were created, with another eighteen added between and This number does not include the numerous universities that disappeared, or institutions that merged with other universities during this time.
In fact, the term "university" was not always used to designate a higher education institution. In Mediterranean countries, the term studium generale was still often used, while "Academy" was common in Northern European countries. Many wars, and especially the Thirty Years' Wardisrupted the university landscape throughout Europe at different times.
War, plague, famine, regicideand changes in religious power and structure often adversely affected the societies that provided support for universities. Internal strife within the universities themselves, such as student brawling and absentee professors, acted to destabilize these institutions as well.Unlike many vet students, I didn’t know from the time I was little that I wanted to be a veterinarian.
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